شاخص های توسعه درونی شهرها

 

یکی از نوشته های اینجانب  که بسیار ی به آن رجوع و استناد کرده اند،برای علاقمندان در اینجا می آورم.

توسعه درونی شهرهاو شاخص های اندازه گیری آن

 

  

Brown field development and its indicators

 

Brown field development is one of the three types of urban development policies, which are:

1. Joined development (such as building new towns connected to original city)

2. Seperate urban development (such as new towns away from original city)

3. Brown field development

Many of experts believe that brown field development has proportional preferences compare to other policies. So through brown field development, cities in our country could respond to many demands such as:

1.                settling down the exceed population

2.                improving the urban services

So it could be emphasize that if there are essential capacities in inner cities, use of other development policies are not intellectual because they would impose more expenditure on people and government.

But what is the brown field development? And how can we measure the level of such development in each city? These subjects would be considered in this chapter.

Brown field development unlike other development policies is a complicated and interdisciplinary subject which does not contain just physical issues but because such development take place in inner city with attendance of residents-citizens and neighborhoods it also contains social-economical-cultural and environmental aspects. In brown field development compact development is considered instead of sprawl, then rehabilitation and regeneration of distressed areas are considered .therefore using derelict lands and incompatible and inappropriate land uses are considered, and the accessibility network and streets area would become closer to standards parameters.

According to European commission in 1990, future development should happen in inner cities, so the compact city as a key solution to achieve sustainable development should be considered. Such development can be called as an antidote for sprawl. (iniyasi zax: 1994)

Brown field development emphasize on more efficient use of lands in urban development. Main part of future population and housing demands in city or region can be provided through inner city development by

1.                improving the building density

2.                Regeneration of distressed and derelict areas.

3.                Rehabilitation and renovation of old buildings

In the other word, brown field development is oriented to achieve participation and sustainable development through using all capacities and potentials of city. Social-physical-political and economic structures should improve to achieve quantities and qualities balance.

Basically, brown field development is recognizes as following in the world:

  • Improving and maximizing the use of lands and inner city capacities
  • Improving the accessibility to urban and social services for residents of distressed areas(urban development and revitalization organization:1384)

As a first step in each city, indicators for illustrating the city statue quo and developing level should be considered. This means that, it is necessary to introduce indicators for measuring the level of inner city development compare to standards. Some important brown field development indicators are:

These indicators are:

  1. Urban land utilization:

 urban land can be used by more than one person because of high price, scarcity, UN renew ability and restricted of it. More users of lands will provide more utilization of urban lands. Use of land would be considered as an anti-development if its use were more than acceptable standards. this indicator could be achieved by calculating net population density and gross population density per hectare which  could illustrate these considerable information:

  1.  
    • Sprawl zones
    • population Concentration
    • investments and population over flow results
    • Land utilization
    • Urban services and infrastructure
  2. Indicators related to standards and approved per capita:

 according to these indicators, a city with standard per capita of open spaces, educational, hygienic, remedial, sport, security, cultural and religious land uses could be called brown field developed city.

  1. indicators of garden and agricultural and non agricultural land deterioration  in urban fringes:

More decline of this indicator through years (according to trends of population growth) could illustrate the brown field development.

  1. Compatible and incompatible land uses:

 the more decline of incompatible adjacent land uses in city would cause to achieve brown field development. A city with inappropriate and incompatible land uses or activities could not be recognized as a developed city. For example an industrial zone in a residential area is a quite incompatible land use. In this cases incompatible activities and land uses could be obstacle and obtrusive to each other.

  1. The quality and age of buildings:

brown field development will be improved if the amounts of unstable and old buildings are declined. On the other hand this factor could provide a primary assessment of economical and cultural patterns in the area.

  1. Permeability:

 more accessibility and streets area in each block would cause more capacity for brown field development. According to the standard, this indicator should be about 20 to 25 percent of the total area of the block.

  1. Social and economical indicators:

 more participation and social knowledge of residents and owners or more economic credit of residents and citizens and the more quality of life could illustrate the brown field development. this indicators can be measure by following factors:

 

-                    rate of employment: employment rate is the main economical factor for illustrating the employment distribution among active population. This factor is calculated by dividing number of employee people to active population. (Active population is the sum of employed and unemployed population)

-                    Rate of employees: is the ratio of employed people to total population.

-                    Ratio of active population: is the division of active population to total population.

-                    -rate of guardianship: is the division of total population to active population.

-                    -average size of households: is the division of total population to number of households.

-                    Households density in residential unit

-                    Number of rooms per person

  1. Environmental indicators:

 environmental and social problems would happen where ever the ratio of work spaces dominants on residential and recreational spaces.

Distribution of population in land and air would decline the environmental quality of life .in addition to street network and traffic nodes; some land uses such as warehouse -transportation-car repair shop and commercial would cause dangerous and harmful pollutions.

Swage systems, absorbing well, are some of the reasons for water and soil pollution. Some of the noise pollution in urban spaces spatially during rush hours is because of street network and traffic nodes and squares. Declining trends of this pollutant through years could illustrate the brown field development. (Shirazian: 1383)

More NGOs involvement for solving urban problems shows the public participation and improvement of resident's sense of place .More public participation in city and neighborhood management would accelerate the brown field development, so it is one of the indicators.

 

 

توسعه درونی شهرهاو شاخص های اندازه گیری آن

سیاست توسعه درونی یا درون زای شهری ، یکی از سیاسته سه گانه توسعه شهری است که در کنار دو سیاست توسعه شهری متصل یا پیوسته ( ایجاد شهرک های متصل به شهر و در محدوده رسمی شهر ) و دو سیاست توسعه شهری منفصل یا نا پیوسته ( ایجاد شهرهای جدید با فاصله از شهر مادر ) مطرح می شود ، برخی این سیاست را دارای مزیت های نسبی متعددی نسبت به دو سیاست دیگر می دانند و معتقدند شهرهای موجود کشور از طریق توسعه درونی ، تا سالیان زیادی می توانند پاسخگویی بسیاری از نیازهای از جمله اسکان سرریز جمعیت شهری و ارتقاء سرانه های خدمات شهری باشند و تاکید دارند تا مادامی که در درون شهر موجود،  ظرفیت لازم وجود دارد ، استفاده از سایر سیاست های توسعه شهری ، هزینه های اضافه ای بر مردم و دولت تحمیل  می نمایند و این به لحاظ علمی و عقلی مردود است . اما ، توسعه درونی چیست و میزان توسعه یافتگی درونی هر شهر را چگونه می توان اندازه گیری کرد ؟ اینها مباحثی است که در این مقاله به آنها پرداخته می شود .

توسعه درونی شهری یا توسعه از درون ، بر خلاف سایر سیاستهای توسعه شهری ، با توجه به اینکه در بستر شهر موجود و با حضور ساکنان و شهروندان و واحدهای همسایگی صورت می پذیرد موضوعی پیچیده ، چند وجهی ، میان بخشی و حتی فرابخشی است که نه فقط یک کار فیزیکی ، کالبدی و شهرسازی است بلکه دارای ابعاد قوی اجتماعی ، فرهنگی ، اقتصادی و زیست محیطی است . در توسعه درونی شهرها ، بجای گسترش افقی ، شهر بصورت عمودی گسترش می یابد ، بافتهای قدیمی ، فرسوده و نا کارآمد شهری ، احیاء بهسازی و نوسازی می شود . اراضی بایر و رها شده شهری بکار گرفته می شود . کاربریهای نا مناسب و نامتناسب با زندگی امروزین شهری نظیر زندان ها ، پادگان های نظامی ، کارخانجات و صنایع مزاحم در درون شهر اصلاح می شود . سطح معابر و شبکه های دسترسی ، سطح فضای سبز و .. به استانداردهای شهرسازی نزدیک می شود .

مقاله کمیسیون جوامع اروپایی در سال 1990 می گوید علاوه بر تعریف محدوده بافت شهر ، توسعه های بعدی باید در داخل مرزهای موجود شهر صورت گیرد و راه حل شهر فشرده(compact city) وسیله ای برای رسیدن به توسعه پایدار و آنتی تز حومه های گسترده و بی درو پیکر فعلی می داند ( اینیاسی زاکس ، 1994 ) . در توسعه درون شهری ، بیشترین توجه معطوف به استفاده مؤثرتر از زمین هایی است که تحت پوشش توسعه شهری درآمده است . بخش اعظم رشد آینده جمعیت و نیاز مسکن در منطقه یا شهر را می توان از طریق پرکردن بافت موجود شهر ، افزایش متعادل تراکم ، نوسازی و بازسازی مناطق متروکه و فرسوده و احی

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